Commons | forget art

Tag: Commons

13 十月

It’s about the “Commons” – Witnessing Occupy Movements and Street Demonstrations in ItalyArticle written by Boliang Shen (Beijing-based curator and journalist at Artinfo China). The article has been translated from Chinese into English by Fang Liu in June 2012. The original article of this slightly edited version appeared in Artinfo China, on 25th May 2012.

The ‘Occupy’ movement is not a carnival-style entertainment”, but on May 12th, at the Piazza Verdi next to the University of Bologna, what I saw looked just like that: students wearing costumes of ancient Roman generals, medieval knights or pirates (“These where actually students from the local university’s fraternities, probably celebrating their graduation”, editor’s note) and holding placards with creative slogans addressing different social and political issues gathered at the square under the sun, they drank beer, engaged in animated talks… when dawn drew near, a truck carrying a rock band drove across the square, following behind was a long procession formed by groups of students, smoke of fireworks lighted to herald the procession gradually spread and seethed in this old, red city known for its tradition of radical resistance. The “Global Strike Day” march had just began –  “in the eyes of the Chinese, this is a spectacle, another disguise under the protection of capitalism”, said the artist Zhou Xiaohu who was with me.

……

At the time, I and four other artists and curators (i.e., Ma Yongfeng, Ni Kun, You Mi and Zhouu Xiahou) were invited by European Alternatives, a European civil society organization, to participate in the art exchange in Rome and Bologna as part of the Transeuropa Festival co-hosted by the European Alternatives and the Transeuropa Network, which took place in 14 cities across Europe.

……

From the eruption of the global financial crisis in ’08 and ’09 to the outbreaks of “Arab Spring” and “Occupy Wall Street”, all kinds of occupations, protests, mobilizations and radical politics have been acting like flames spreading everywhere. Nevertheless, we can only get to know one another through smoke and phantoms. “Is your art against capitalism?” “Is your art anti-modernism?” – These have been the looking-for-comrades type of questions that we often encountered. I asked about the connections between the current radical movements in Italy and the Italian communism tradition started by Antonio Gramsci and Palmiro Togliatti, the student and worker movements in the ’60s and late ‘70s, radical authors we are familiar with such as Pier Paolo Pasolini or Dario Fo, and even the left-wing extremist group “Red Brigades” in the ‘70s. The answers I got in general were: “There are maybe a certain loose connections, but those are not important, we were very young or not yet born then. What’s happening now is primarily influenced by global trends.”

……

On the other hand, it is not like the “May Revolt” of ’68 in France, as many people have understood – “a group of young people growing up after the war revolted against a prosperous society”. Italy is experiencing a serious financial and social crisis. The young people I met showed anxiety over employment after graduation, and expressed concerns over tax hikes and high suicide rate in this city. According to a BBC report, there was a “White Widows March” in Bologna the weekend before we arrived, husbands of the women in the march killed themselves under the burden of deep recession, many were business men – that reminded me of a passage mentioned in the “Capital”, which has often been ignored: do not blame individual capitalists, they are victims of capitalism too. Reports of infectious suicides were all over the place. This March, a craftsman burned himself to death in front of the local tax court. Two days before we arrived, Maurizio Cevenini, a beloved left wing party leader and former mayoral candidate in Bologna, threw himself off a council building. His funeral was held on 12th May, the whole town was in grief. Ma Yongfeng’s “micro-resistance” event scheduled for that morning at a square near the city council was moved to the afternoon on the same day at Piazza Verdi next to the University of Bologna.

……

Back in China, movements of “micro-interventions”, “micro-practices” and “micro-resistance” had been well received. Would the effect and meaning of “micro” become difficult to execute or express anything in the mighty context Bologna, where people have been so agitated? Continuing the pattern of creating graffiti on site in Bernard Controls, Ma wrote sentences on recycled cardboards, scrolls of fabrics, flags of Italy and EU, some were with indefinite indications such as “Sensibility is Under Control”, “Action is Product” and “You Can Steal ‘Now’, but Future is In Our Hands”, some were reflections on radical demonstrations – “Do Not Let the Protest Become a Pollutant-Free Ethical Gesture”, “Is It a Revolt without Revolution?” and so on. He also interacted with the students, asked them to write down their thoughts. However, in the deluge of slogans and graffiti of Bologna, could their words be noticed and understood as delicate and firm heterogeneity? After the brief exchanges, would the students deviate somewhat from the radical way of thinking they have been used to for the thoughts written down by themselves?

……

Lorenzo Marsili, co-director of European Alternatives, asked what if someone from a radical group challenges him? Ma Yongfeng replied: “I’ll ask him to explain his point of view in one sentence, then I’ll write that sentence on a cardboard and give it to him in exchange of the placard he is holding.” That was an interesting idea, but, no one came forward to challenge, and each group kept to itself. There were some minorities who could hardly blend in stood by and watched. A Chinese friend who studies in University of Bologna said: “Protests and demonstrations happen here almost everyday, they have become a way for the people here to participate in public life, express opinions and positions, or legal channels for criticisms, just like us Chinese tweet our complains online…”.

……

I had a long conversation about the issue with Sara Saleri, a member of European Alternatives, who has studied semiology with Umberto Eco. She thought that the student march we saw should not be deemed as a typical example of the entire “Occupy” protests and street demonstrations happening in Italy. Those young people were simply expressing themselves, they were anxious over the future, but had limited understanding of the substantial problems of the society. She admitted that street protest as a legal public means has a long tradition. However, she stressed that at about the time when the financial crisis started, street movements began to have whole new forms and claims.

“Commons”, “common goods” are terms mentioned often in the above movements, but they are relatively new concepts to Chinese readers. The easier examples are “Wikimedia Commons” and “Pirate Parties International” (PPI). The latter, first appeared in Sweden in 2006, started by opposing corporate copyright law’s restrictions on online downloads and hindrances of circulation of knowledge, and supporting legalization of online resource sharing. Later it grew bigger and expanded to many countries. Its claims have also been extended, by advocating openness and transparency of online information, government transparency and protection of civil rights, establishing a freer civilization and opposing outdated patent laws and monopoly. “Online governing” is another trait of the parties, they take advantage of online social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter to allow party members exercise their rights, announce policies, collect opinions and eliminate hierarchy. Its political stance has thus been established. Last September, the Pirate Party in Germany took 9% of the vote in Berlin elections. It was allowed to enter Berlin Parliament for the first time in history. Some people consider that the inception of alternative governance model.

……

It is necessary to mention that, one reason for “commons” to become a keyword is closely related to Elinor Olstrom’s brilliant research on the concept – which won her 2009 Nobel prize in economics. Her study rip the notion of the negative connotation derived from the well-known article “Tragedy of the Commons” by Garret Hardin in 1968. Also, I must mention the book “Commonwealth”, co-written by Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt, and “The Common in Revolt”, a collection of dialogues between Judith Revel and Antonio Negri. Both are important sources on “Commons” in Italy. This year, the Transeuropa Festival in Bologna held symposiums on issues of digital commons, co-working and co-housing, new chapter of European commons and immigration policies.

……

In Rome, posters advocating water as a common good are often seen, the campaign started last year based on nationwide queries made by two legal scholars of International University College of Turin. According to the result, most Italian considered that water should be deemed as a common good and managed by the people, so they oppose privatization of water.  Shortly after, on June 14 2011, the famous theatre Teatro Valle, built in the 18th century and located along the Pantheon and the Senate, was occupied (Luigi Pirandello’s “Six Characters in Search of an Author” made its debut there). The theatre used to be managed by the ETI (Italian theatre association); then the ETI was closed and the theatre shot down due to high costs and decline of the industry. It was said that the theatre would be bought by a tycoon and converted into a restaurant. Therefore, workers of the arts and entertainment were mobilized through the internet to occupy the theatre, they claimed that culture is a common good, just like the water and the air, and the theatre shall be managed by the citizens. Now it has been almost one year now since the Teatro Valle was occupied, shows have been put on almost every night, performances are open to all citizens who pay as much as they wish. The occupiers and citizens ensure the quality of the performances through public assemblies – “We don’t need to vote, we listen to the reasons of those who say ‘No’.” The occupiers who accepted to be interviewed by me admitted that those were simply the first step of the occupation; they need to develop an alternative managing model of “common wealth theatre” in order to resolve financing and workers’ payment issues, and introduce the model to the government and citizens. For the time being, occupants still make their living from jobs outside of the theatre, they take turns to guard the theatre 24 hours a day, so the government wouldn’t have any chance to evict them – “the government does not even shut off the water and light, probably for fear of further intensifying the conflict…”. Similar occupations have erupted involving several other theatres in Rome and many cultural institutions across the country.

……

In Rome, an audience asked about the current fever in China of building museums. Zhou Xiaohu replied frankly that “those are simply some art ‘houses’, and we do not benefit from them” – “But, I believe one day we will occupy those ‘houses’ as well.” Regarding the above-mentioned issue that whether the “alternative” art practices in China are part of the global “anti-capitalism” movement, Ma said that what is important in the world today is not movements with clear guiding ideology, but numerous “tenuous” movements that are organized voluntarily by the people.

……

Afterwards I asked Sara Saleri and Gian Paolo Faella, PhD in History of Ideology at the University of Bologna, whether the movements of “commons” and “alternatives” are a direct revolt against capitalism, or just an improvement plan for the status quo. They admitted that opinions have been divided among participants, albeit those opinions derive from the desire for change. “Down with capitalism” is a political appeal belonging to a distant future. That is certainly too reserved in the eyes of a radical. Slavoj Žižek once said that if we try to improve capitalism inside the system, it would only extend the life of capital, the beast, and make modern states, “committees of administering common affairs of the entire capitalist class” even healthier. I also asked, if expanding the context of “commons” in which the backgrounds of members of co-governance and the circumstances are more complicated and diversified, will the model fail or end in disaster, like various communes or utopia in the past? Gian Paolo Faella considered it a very important question in the practice regarding “commons”, what resources could be “common wealth” shall be judged carefully – they shall be limited to resources on which the subsistence of all people rely and cultural resources shared by a community. To me, instead of establishing a country where everything is eventually a commons, the entire work regarding “commons” shall aim to the autonomy by the people on certain public resources, consequently make a government become a more idealized “limited government”.

……

I am tired of asking questions that aim for “a clear direction” or “ the final goal”, which probably came from the habitual way of thinking imprinted on us by Leninism: a movement must have clear goals and plans designed by an authoritative figure or the highest commission, which would instruct the masses to strictly carry them out. Maybe we can bring up here the legacy of the German revolutionist Rosa Luxemburg, Lenin’s contemporary: contrary to Lenin’s favour of control and giving orders, Luxemburg emphasized the importance of disorder, noise and active, large-scale social events. She stressed the creativity and morale of each participant, deemed a revolution as “a complicated and organic process”, any division or intervention to the process would threaten the vitality of the organism as a whole – which are quite similar to “chaos” “complexity” and “self-organization”, concepts of modern science. Alexandra Kollontai, a Luxemburgist from the elite of the Soviet Bolshevik, also thought that to accomplish a revolution and create new forms of production is like riding on uncharted waters, therefore, action itself is superior then a blueprint or plans. She asked: “Can the smartest manager of a feudal estate invent early capitalism by himself?”. Similarly, without action, we should not expect the experts trained within the frameworks of capitalism and socialism be able to build a wonderful model for the future.

……

(Special thanks to members of European Alternatives: Lorenzo Marsili, Luigi Galimberti Faussone, Sara Saleri, Gian Paolo Faella; occupiers of the Teatro Valle: Federica Giardini, Laura Verga, Emiliano Campagnola; James C. Scott, “Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed”; You Mi, Ni Kun, Ma Yongfeng, Zhou Xiaohu and his wife, Zhu He and Ou Ning who have helped me with the trip and this article.)


20 八月

by Luigi Galimberti Faussone

……

What are the different types of cultural spaces in China and how are they managed? What is the artist’s role in the self-management of artistic production? What is the relationship between the artist and the transformation of the public space, the overpopulation and the exploitation of natural resources in China? How to define the artist’s role towards the public space?

……

These and other related questions have been explored in occasion of the visit of five Chinese artists and curators to Italy, who had been invited by European Alternatives as part of the Transeuropa Festival 2012. Boliang Shen (curator and journalist, Beijing),Ma Yongfeng (artist, Beijing), Ni Kun (curator, Chongqing), You Mi (artist, curator and writer, Beijing) and Zhou Xiahou (artist, Shanghai) took part in a tour across the Italian towns of Rome, Prato and Bologna with the aim of opening a confrontation on the spaces of artistic expression and production between Europe and China.

……

The first meeting took place on 9th May in Rome, at MACRO, one of the leading Italian contemporary art museums. The public roundtable has been moderated by European Alternative’s co-director, Lorenzo Marsili, with an opening address by Maria Alicata, curator at MACRO. The discussion focused on the issue of the rapid, as well as uncontrolled, urban development in China, which is causing physical and psychological displacement in many communities, which have been affected by such sudden changes in the Chinese landscape. Amongst the many interventions, the presentation of Organhaus’ activities by its founder and curator, Ni Kun, deserves particular attention. Organhaus is the first independent artist-run space in the urban conglomerate of Chongqing, a roughly 30 million people megalopolis in the region of Sichuan in Southwest China. Ni Kun has been running several projects involving the inhabitants of small villages, whose identities have been severely questioned by the displacement caused by the sprawling urbanization that affected Chinese countryside. The open engagement of the artist with public, vital issues showed how deeply and seriously the role of the artist might be played in contemporary China.

While in Rome, in addition to the public talk at MACRO, the Chinese artists and curators also engaged on informal meetings, such as the one with the occupants of the Teatro Valle. In particular, journalist and curator Boliang Shen and artist Ma Yongfeng exchanged practices and experiences on the management of spaces of cultural production by artists themselves, with a specific reference to the issue of the commons, on which the Teatro Valle Occupato is at the forefront in the European cultural context. Afterwards, all the participants moved to Prato, a town close to Florence, where they had the chance to visit the exhibition “Moving Image in China”, an extensive retrospective on Chinese video-art, hosted at the cutting edge Centro per l’arte contemporanea Luigi Pecci. The participants – and, in particular, the artist Zhou Xiahou, who is one of the pioneer of Chinese video-art and whose work was also featured in the exhibition – have been welcomed by Centro Pecci’s director, Marco Bazzini, who showed the group around the exhibition and with whom the group discussed many social and artistic issues, such as the relationship of the local art community with Prato’s Chinese inhabitants, who are estimated to account for almost a third of the town’s 180,000 residents.

The conclusive stage of the Chinese artists’ and curators’ tour in Italy took place in Bologna, during a busy weekend, full of Transeuropa Festival’s events. On Friday 11th May, a public talk was held at Teatrino Clandestino, Bologna’s renowned underground cultural venue, hosted by the curator Fiorenza Menni. In addition to the presence of the artists and curators from China, Elvira Vannini (curator and lecturer at NABA, Milan) and Luigi Galimberti Faussone, acting as moderator, joined the roundtable. This second talk switched the focus to the issue of alternatives and artist-run spaces, building up a confrontation with some more and less recent experiences in China and Europe, such as the well-established Beijing collective Forget Art, run by Ma Yongfeng, and the energetic, albeit curt, experience of MACAO‘s occupation of a skyscraper in the downtown of Milan, as told in the first-hand account of the the curator Elvira Vannini. On the following day, while the streets of Bologna were flooded with people, be they coming from the public funeral of a beloved local politician, who tragically committed suicide a few days before, or be they joining a fired up protest against the new government cuts to social spending, artist Ma Yongfeng staged a public intervention in Piazza Verdi, a central square in the university area. With the help of half a dozen volunteers, he went on writing slogans on banners and cardboards with red and black air spray painting. With these slogans, which mostly dealt with current, critical, social and political issues, Ma Yongfeng tried to engage the passers-by, as well as the protesters, in order to build up an extemporaneous transnational Sino-European dialogue on politics through art.

The participation of five Chinese artists and curators to the Transeuropa Festival 2012 lies within the broader project “Transnational Dialogues“, of which the next step is a research caravan across the towns of Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing. This caravan, which is scheduled to take place in early October 2012, involves a large number of artists, researchers, curators and thinkers from China and Europe, who will engage in a research and production trip to map innovative cultural practices, foster new and existing relationships, document, and work towards a sustainable continuation of exchange between cultural innovators in both areas. These activities, as well as others that are in preparation, are part of European Alternatives’ efforts to go beyond the European context and to establish mutually fruitful partnerships between artists and spaces of artistic production, dialoguing and working together in Europe, China and South-East Asia.

……

Articles in the press:

……

“Non dimenticare lo spazio. Macro orientale, a Roma si discute di ruolo pubblico dell’artista e di spazi culturali in Cina” (on the talk at MACRO, Rome, 9th May 2012), Artribune (in Italian)
“Don’t forget space” (on the talk at MACRO, Rome, 9th May 2012), by Andrea Pira, China Files (in Italian)
“Seduti sui cuscini, tra Europa e Cina” (on the talk at Teatrino Clandestino, Bologna, 11th May 2012), by Gian Paolo Faella, Transeuropa Journal (in Italian)
“It’s about the Commons – Witnessing Occupy Movements and Street Demonstrations in Italy”, by Boliang Shen, ARTINFO China (in Mandarin)
“La Take the Square Parade invade le strade di Bologna!” (on the protests taking place next to Ma Yongfeng’s performance in Bologna, 12th May 2012), Univ-aut.org (in Italian)


30 五月

博洛尼亚Piazza Verdi广场“全球罢工日”游行现场
……
作者: 申舶良       日期: 2012年5月25日
来源:艺讯中国 BLOUIN ARTINFO

http://cn.artinfo.com/news/story/806000/Experiencing-the-Occupation-and-Street-Protest-in-Italy

……

“占领’不是嘉年华式的娱乐”,5月12日,在意大利博洛尼亚大学旁的Piazza Verdi广场,我所见却大致如此:学生们身着古罗马将军、中世纪骑士、海盗等奇装异服,高举针对不同社会、政治议题的创意标语,聚集在广场的艳阳下畅饮啤酒,高谈阔论,发泄着过剩的少壮精力和心气……直至白日将近,一辆卡车载着摇滚乐队穿过广场,各路学生团体汇作长队追随卡车,队首燃起烟火,在这座有着素有激进抵抗传统的意大利红色老城沸腾弥漫:“全球罢工日”的穿城游行刚开始——“对中国人来说,这是一场‘景观化’的游行,是资本主义保护下的另一种遮蔽方式,”同行的艺术家周啸虎对我说。

……

是时,我与四位中国艺术家和策展人一同应欧洲公民社会组织“欧洲替代性(European Alternatives)”之邀,参与该组织与“跨欧洲网络(Traseuropa Network)”于全欧14个城市举办的“跨欧洲盛会(Transeuropa Festival)”在罗马和博洛尼亚两市的中欧艺术交流活动。“跨欧洲盛会”是2010年始在全欧经济危机的语境下发起的年度政治、社会、文化、艺术盛会,旨在通过一系列社会动员、实践、艺术活动、工作坊和论坛,为危机之下的欧洲寻求一种“替代性(alternative)”解决方案。

……

在罗马当代艺术馆MACRO和博洛尼亚的小剧场”Teatro Si”进行的两场交流中,倪昆介绍了他担任执行负责人的重庆“器·Haus空间”与成都艺术小组“实验工作坊”联合主办的开放性艺术介入项目“昆山再造”和“器•Haus空间国际艺术家驻留计划”。马永峰介绍了他发起的游击性艺术机构“forget art”2010年进行的“微干预”项目“龙泉洗浴”,2011年进行的“微实践”项目“青年公寓交换”和今年在北京大兴法国工厂Bernard Controls进行的“微抵抗”项目“新‘大字报’”现场涂鸦。周啸虎介绍了2011年他参与上海“桃浦大楼”艺术活动的作品“EATS表达性艺术治疗工作室”第一季“一人一故事剧场”,上海数位艺术家联合策划的“我的共产主义:海报展”,还有上海艺术家们联合发起的长期观察、讨论当代艺术的流动论坛“未来的节日”。由宓谈了她在中、欧两地策划和参与的各种关于“替代性”和公共空间的活动和讨论。我介绍了针对詹姆斯·斯科特(James Scott)所言“国家的视角”对中国这一复杂现场中事物的简化而进行的实践与创作项目“各种未来”。

……

从08、09年全球金融危机,到去年“阿拉伯之春”和“占领华尔街”,各种占领、抗议、动员和激进政治的图景有如到处授粉的火焰,我们只能透过它的烟雾和幻影去认识彼此的现实。“你们的艺术是否反资本主义?”,“你们的艺术是否反现代性?”——这种“寻找同志”般的发问是我们常常遇到的。我问及意大利当下的激进运动与自葛兰西和陶里亚蒂以来的意共传统,60、70年代末的学生、工人运动,我们熟悉的激进作者帕索里尼或达里奥·福,乃至70年代极左恐怖组织“红色旅”有何关系或传承,回答也多是:“或许有些散漫的联系,那不重要,那时我们还小或未出生,当下运动首先来自全球风潮的感召。”

……

那也并非如许多人理解的68年法国“五月风暴”——“一群在战后成长起来的年轻人,起来反抗一个欣欣向荣的社会”,意大利如今确实面临严重的经济、社会危机,我接触到的年轻人们对走出校园求职表示焦虑,并诉说当地缴税压力和自杀高发等问题。据BBC报道,一场“白寡妇游行”在我们到达博洛尼亚前的周末爆发,参与游行的女人们的丈夫全因不堪经济危机后的重负而自杀,其中包括许多商贾——令人想起《资本论》中常被有意忽略的一个观念:不要谴责资本家个体,他们也是资本主义体系的受害者。关于传染式自杀的报道比比皆是:今年3月,一名手艺人在当地税务法庭门口自焚抗议。我们到达前两天,受博洛尼亚市民爱戴的左翼政党领袖、市长候选人毛里奇奥·切维尼尼(Maurizio Cevenini)在市政厅坠楼自杀,5月12日上午举行葬礼,全城默哀。这令“跨欧洲盛会”邀请马永峰原定该日上午在市政厅附近广场进行的“微抵抗”活动改于下午在博洛尼亚大学旁的Piazza Verdi广场进行。

……

在国内的环境下,马永峰的“微干预”、“微实践”、“微抵抗”活动都有很好的效果。在博洛尼亚群体沸腾的“强”语境下,“微”的作用和意义是否会变得难以操作和言说?他延续在Bernard Controls进行现场涂鸦的做法,在回收纸板、织物长卷和意大利、欧盟国旗上喷写并不具有明确指向性的话语,如“感觉在控制之下”,“行动就是产品”,“你可以窃取现在,但未来还掌握在我们手上”,以及对激进运动进行反思的话语,如“‘反对’只是另外一种政治正确”,“不要把抗议变成无公害的道德姿态”,“这是一场没有革命的反抗吗?”……他同时与在场的学生进行交流,请他们写其所想。然,这些话语在博洛尼亚铺天盖地的标语和涂鸦中是否能成为一种微弱而坚硬的异质存在而被注意和领会?现场的简短交流后,学生们写出的所想是否能对他们已成惯性的激进思维方式有所偏离?

……

“欧洲替代性”的负责人洛伦佐·马西里(Lorenzo Marsili)曾问,如果在场的其他激进团体前来发难该怎么办?马永峰答:“我就请他用一句话说明他的观点,把这话喷在硬纸板上送给他,也请他把手中的标语送给我。”这是有趣的思想交换,但,并没有谁来发难,各路团体都自顾自地游走,还有难以融入这些团体的有色人种在周遭徘徊观望。博洛尼亚大学的中国留学生朋友说:“上街、抗议和游行在这儿几乎天天发生,已成为他们参与公共生活、表达观点和立场的方式,或是合法的宣泄渠道,就像我们中国人刷微博发牢骚……”

……

我就此与生活在博洛尼亚的“欧洲替代性”成员莎拉·萨莱里(Sara Saleri)长谈,莎拉曾在博洛尼亚跟随翁贝托·艾柯(Umberto Eco)学习符号学,她认为我们不能简单地将当天看到的学生游行视作意大利全部占领和街头运动的缩影——那些只是年轻人在表达自己,他们充满对未来的焦虑,但与实质性的社会问题接触有限。她承认街头抗议作为一种合法的公共生活传统由来已久,却也强调在经济危机前后,街头运动确实有了全新的形式和诉求。她向我讲述2004年以来的“圣无保(San Precario)”干预运动——塑造新圣徒“圣无保”为工作、生活无保障(precarious)、无编制工人们的守护圣徒,使“圣无保”在意大利处处现身,进行戏仿的天主教仪式,唤起人们对工人问题的关注,促成过许多改变。她还谈及2008年学生反对国家教育经费削减、教育商品化掀起的运动“浪潮(L’Onda)”,呼吁建立学生自治的教育机构模式;2009年学生和群众对博洛尼亚Bartleby文化中心、高速公路等社会、文化、乃至自然资源的占领和“共享化”管理。

……

“共享体(Commons,亦译作‘公共事物’)”、“共享物(Common Goods)”是上述运动中常被提及的热词,对中国读者而言,这些还是相对新异的概念,较易理解的实例是“维基共享资源(Wikimedia Commons)”和“海盗党(Pirate Parties International,简称PPI,亦译作‘盗版党’)”,后者于2006年现身瑞典,起初反对企业版权法对网络下载的限制和知识流通的阻碍,支持网上资源共享合法化,后来在多国发展壮大,触及面拓展至倡导网络信息公开透明,政府行政透明,保障公民权利,建立更加自由的文明,反对僵死的专利制度和独占特权等。“网络问政”是该党另一特色,利用传说中的“Facebook”和“Twitter”等社交网络媒体使党员们在网上充分行使权利,提出政策主张,收集民众意见,模糊等级制度,由此确定政治立场。去年9月,德国海盗党获得了将近9%的得票率,首次进入柏林州议会,有人将其视作一种替代性治理模式的萌芽。

……

必要一提,“共享体(Commons)”成为近年间的“关键词”,与埃丽诺·奥斯特罗姆(Elinor Olstrom)因对“共享体”的出色研究获得2009年诺贝尔经济学奖关系甚巨——她的研究使“共享体”摆脱了加勒特·哈丁(Garret Hardin)1968年的著名文章《共享体的悲剧(Tragedy of the Commons)》赋予此词的负面意味。此外,亦不可不提作为意大利“共享体”运动重要思想资源的安东尼奥·奈格里(Antonio Negri)和迈克尔·哈特(Michael Hardt)合著的《Commonwealth》,以及《朱迪斯·来沃尔(Judith Revel)和安东尼奥·奈格里的对话集《The Common in Revolt》。本届“跨欧洲盛会”在博洛尼亚就数字化共享体(Digital Commons),合作工作(Co-working)与合作居住(Co-housing),欧洲共享体新篇章和移民治理等问题进行了专场讨论。

……

罗马街头,常常可见呼吁将水作为“共享物”运动的海报,该运动始于去年都灵国际大学(International University College of Turin)两位法律学者的全国问卷——问卷显示,绝大多数国民认为水应作为一种“共享物”来由民众共同管理,反对对水的私有化经营。此后不久,在去年6月14日,位于古罗马万神殿和意大利参议院附近的18世纪著名剧院“Teatro Valle”被占领,路易吉·皮兰德娄的《六个寻找作者的剧中人》曾在该剧院首演。该剧院原属意大利剧院协会(ETI)管理,该协会今已解体,剧院亦因成本高昂和行业惨淡而关闭。据传该剧院将由一位巨商收购,改建为餐馆。为此,通过网络动员,文化、娱乐工作者在剧场集结占领,宣称文化应与水和空气一样作为“共享物”,由市民共同管理。如今,“Teatro Valle”的占领将近一年,几乎每晚都有剧目上演,以自愿出价购票的方式向全体市民开放。占领者和市民以公共议事的方式对申请上演的剧目进行品质把关——“我们不用投票,而是倾听那些说‘不’者的理由。”接受我采访的占领者们坦言,这些只是占领的第一步,他们需要发展一套“共享剧院”替代性经营模式,能切实解决剧院运营中的经济问题和工作者的酬劳问题,并将这套方案向政府和市民推行。目前,占领者们还是靠着在剧院之外的工作维生,他们轮流驻守,使剧院24小时处于有人的状态,这样政府就不能发动“强拆”——“政府甚至没有采用停水、停电等措施,大概因为他们担心矛盾进一步激化……”

……

类似的占领活动在罗马其他数家剧院和意大利全境的多家文化机构中爆发,最近流行的话题是米兰的一座废弃的摩天楼,在5月5日被数千人逐层占领,欲建成“共享”艺术中心“MACAO”,许多机构、学院、组织和个人纷纷向占领者提交未来的项目方案。

……

在罗马的交流中,有观众问及中国当下的美术馆建设热潮,周啸虎坦言他认为那不过是一些艺术的“房子”,我们并非这些建设的得益者——“但我相信有一天,我们也会‘占领’这些‘房子’。”对前文中遇到的问题,有关中国的“替代性”艺术实践是否是全球“反资本主义”运动的一部分,马永峰称他认为当今世界重要的不是那些有着明确指导思想的运动,而是无数自发组织的、“微弱”的运动。

……

交流过后,我问“欧洲替代性”成员莎拉·萨莱里和博洛尼亚大学观念史博士让·保罗·费拉(Gian Paolo Faella),“共享体”和“替代性”运动是一种直接针对资本主义的反抗,还是只是一种针对现状的改良方案?他们也坦言参与者的意见并不一致,多是出于改变现状的愿望,“打倒资本主义”还是个稍嫌遥远的政治诉求。对激进分子而言,这当然是不彻底的态度,齐泽克就认为在资本主义体制内进行改良又是在延长资本这头恶兽的寿命,使现代国家这个“管理整个资产阶级的共同事务的委员会”更加健康。

……

《共产党宣言》第三部分《社会主义的和共产主义的文献》中提到德国社会主义者对法国社会主义和共产主义文献的阉割:“德国的社会主义恰好忘记了,法国的批判(德国的社会主义是这种批判的可怜的回声)是以现代的资产阶级社会以及相应的物质生活条件和相当的政治制度为前提的,而这一切前提当时在德国正是尚待争取的……这种社会主义成了德意志各邦专制政府及其随从——僧侣、教员、容克和官僚求之不得的、吓唬来势汹汹的资产阶级的稻草人。”——跨越双方现实情境谈及“资本主义”一词时,我会想起这段话。

……

我还问到,如果“共享”范围扩大,共同治理者的背景和状况变得复杂多元,这种“共享”模式会不会像历史上的各种公社或乌托邦实验一样,以失败甚至灾难告终?让·保罗·费拉认为这是“共享体”实践中非常重要的问题,所以实践者对哪些资源可以作为“共享体”的判断非常谨慎——限于人人赖以生存的资源,小型共同体共享的文化资源等。对我来说,这种“共享体”的意义或许并非最终建立一种事事“共享”的国家模式,而是对部分公共事物进行公民自治,从而使政府成为更加理想化的“有限政府”。

……

我厌倦了就一种实践的“明确指向”或“终极目标”进行提问,这或许是列宁主义为我们烙下的一种思维方式:一场运动必须有明确的目标和方案,由一个先知先觉的权威人物或最高委员会事先设计,指导群众进行严格的实施。或许在这里,与列宁同时代的德国革命家罗莎·卢森堡的遗产更宜重温:相对列宁对控制和命令的爱好,卢森堡强调无序、喧嚣和活跃的大型社会活动活动的重要性。她强调每位参与者自身的创造力和士气,认为革命是“复杂的有机过程”,对这一过程的任意分割或干涉会威胁整个有机体的生命力——这与现代科学中的“混沌”、“复杂性”、“自组织”概念颇有互通。苏联布尔什维克内部的“卢森堡分子”亚历山德拉·柯伦泰也认为,完成革命和创造新的生产形式是在未知的水域中行船,因此,“行动”本身胜于蓝图或作战计划,她问道:“最聪明的封建庄园的管理者能够自己发明早期的资本主义吗?”——同理,若不行动,我们也不要指望在资本主义和社会主义生产框架下学习知识的专家们铸造出多么精美的未来模型。

……

(特别感谢“欧洲替代性”成员Lorenzo Marsili , Luigi Galimberti Faussone, Sara Saleri, Gian Paolo Faella;”Teatro Valle”剧场占领者Federica Giardini, Laura Verga, Emiliano Campagnola;James C. Scott《国家的视角:那些试图改善人类状况的项目是如何失败的》;由宓,倪昆,马永峰,周啸虎夫妇,朱赫,欧宁对此行、此文的帮助。)

……

相关文章

招徕占领者和恐怖分子头目——柏林双年展把激进特色发挥到极致

《理想国2:华西村》:替代性治理模型,反乌托邦,革命,跨媒体教育,及其他

与马永峰对谈“forget art”,及其他

ARTINFO访谈:周啸虎谈在Art Basel上的新作《反蒙太奇—党同伐异》及其他

ARTINFO访谈:小汉斯谈“后匆匆主义”艺术新运动,及其他

ARTINFO访谈:奥奎·恩维佐谈艺术对政治变革的诊断

ARTINFO访谈:莫塔兹·纳塞尔谈“隧道”与后革命时代的埃及艺术

ARTINFO访谈:“游击队女孩”卷土重来,谈新作、艺术市场和占领华尔街


ֽIJ365betֽhg0088˶ijͳֳhg0088ַ¶̩ij